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U.S.-Mexico Trade Facts
U.S. goods and services trade with Mexico totaled an estimated $616.6 billion in 2017. Exports were $276.2 billion; imports were $340.3 billion. The U.S. goods and services trade deficit with Mexico was $64.1 billion in 2017.
However, the international shipment of non-U.S. goods through the United States can make standard measures of bilateral trade balances potentially misleading. For example, it is common for goods to be shipped through regional trade hubs without further processing before final shipment to their ultimate destination. This can be seen in data reported by the United States’ two largest trading partners, Canada and Mexico.
The U.S. data report a $17.5 billion goods deficit with Canada in 2017, and a $71.1 billion goods deficit with Mexico. Both countries, however, reported substantially larger U.S. goods surpluses in the same relationship. In 2017, Canada reported a $97.7 billion surplus, and Mexico a $132.4 billion surplus.
This reflects the large role of re-exported goods originating in other countries (or originating in one NAFTA partner, arriving in the United States, and then returned or re-exported to the other partner without substantial transformation). U.S. statistics count goods coming into the U.S. customs territory from third countries and being exported to our trading partners, without substantial transformation, as exports from the United States. Canada and Mexico, however, count these re-exported goods as imports from the actual country of origin. In the same way, Canadian and Mexican export data may include re-exported products originating in other countries as part of their exports to the United States, whereas U.S. data count these products as imports from the country of origin. These counting methods make each country’s bilateral balance data consistent with its overall balance, but yield large discrepancies in national measures of bilateral balance. It is likely that a measure of the U.S. trade deficit with Canada and Mexico excluding re-exports in all accounts would be somewhere in between the values calculated by the United States and by our country trading partners.
Mexico is currently our 3rd largest goods trading partner with $557.0 billion in total (two way) goods trade during 2017. Goods exports totaled $243.0 billion; goods imports totaled $314.0 billion. The U.S. goods trade deficit with Mexico was $71.1 billion in 2017.
Trade in services with Mexico (exports and imports) totaled an estimated $59.5 billion in 2017. Services exports were $33.3 billion; services imports were $26.3 billion. The U.S. services trade surplus with Mexico was $7.0 billion in 2017.According to the Department of Commerce, U.S. exports of Goods and Services to Mexico supported an estimated 1.2 million jobs in 2015 (latest data available) (968 thousand supported by goods exports and 201 thousand supported by services exports).
- Mexico was the United States' 2nd largest goods export market in 2017.
- U.S. goods exports to Mexico in 2017 were $243.0 billion, up 5.8% ($13.3 billion) from 2016 and up 78.8% from 2007. U.S. exports to Mexico are up 484% from 1993 (pre-NAFTA). U.S. exports to Mexico account for 15.7% of overall U.S. exports in 2017.
- The top export categories (2-digit HS) in 2017 were: machinery ($43 billion), electrical machinery ($41 billion), mineral fuels ($26 billion), vehicles ($21 billion), and plastics ($17 billion).
- U.S. total exports of agricultural products to Mexico totaled $19 billion in 2017, our 3rd largest agricultural export market. Leading domestic export categories include:
- corn ($2.6 billion), soybeans ($1.6 billion), pork & pork products ($1.5 billion), dairy products ($1.3 billion), and beef & beef products ($980 million).
- U.S. exports of services to Mexico were an estimated $33.3 billion in 2017, 3.8% ($1.2 billion) more than 2016, and 33.1% greater than 2007 levels. It was up roughly 220% from 1993 (pre-NAFTA). Leading services exports from the U.S. to Mexico were in the travel, transportation, and intellectual property ( ) sectors.
- Mexico was the United States' 2nd largest supplier of goods imports in 2017.
- U.S. goods imports from Mexico totaled $314.0 billion in 2017, up 6.8% ($20.0 billion) from 2016, and up 49.0% from 2007. U.S. imports from Mexico are up 687% from 1993 (pre-NAFTA). U.S. imports from Mexico account for 13.4% of overall U.S. imports in 2017.
- The top import categories (2-digit HS) in 2017 were: vehicles ($84 billion), electrical machinery ($62 billion), machinery ($54 billion), optical and medical instruments ($14 billion), and mineral fuels ($11 billion).
- U.S. total imports of agricultural products from Mexico totaled $25 billion in 2017, our largest supplier of agricultural imports. Leading categories include: other fresh fruit ($6.0 billion), fresh vegetables ($5.5 billion), wine and beer ($3.3 billion), snack foods ($2.1 billion), and processed fruit & vegetables ($1.5 billion).
- U.S. imports of services from Mexico were an estimated $26.3 billion in 2017, 6.9% ($1.7 billion) more than 2016, and 71.4% greater than 2007 levels. It was up roughly 254% from 1993 (pre-NAFTA). Leading services imports from Mexico to the U.S. were in the travel, transportation, and technical and other services sectors.
- The U.S. goods trade deficit with Mexico was $71.1 billion in 2017, a 10.4% increase ($6.7 billion) over 2016.
- The United States has a services trade surplus of an estimated $7.0 billion with Mexico in 2017, down 6.7% from 2016.Investment
- U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in Mexico (stock) was $87.6 billion in 2016 (latest data available), a 1.0% increase from 2015. U.S. direct investment in Mexico is led by manufacturing, nonbank holding companies, and mining.
- Mexico's FDI in the United States (stock) was $16.8 billion in 2016 (latest data available), up 10.2% from 2015. Mexico's direct investment in the U.S. is led by manufacturing, wholesale trade, and depository institutions.
- Sales of services in Mexico by majority U.S.-owned affiliates were $42.8 billion in 2015 (latest data available), while sales of services in the United States by majority Mexico-owned firms were $8.6 billion.