USTR's Office of China Affairs is responsible for managing the formulation and implementation of U.S. trade policy for the People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Macao, Mongolia and Taiwan, with the goal of increasing access for U.S. products and services in these markets and ensuring that World Trade Organization (WTO) and bilateral commitments are enforced.
Select one of the tabs at left to connect to specific trade data and policy information for each of these trading partners.
Following China’s accession to the WTO in December 2001, the United States and China pursued a series of high-level bilateral dialogues in the areas of trade and investment. These dialogues included the U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade, the U.S.-China Strategic Economic Dialogue, the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue and the U.S.-China Comprehensive Economic Dialogue. Through these dialogues, the United States sought to push China toward complying with and internalizing WTO rules and norms and making other market-oriented changes. These bilateral efforts were largely unsuccessful, as China’s leadership doubled-down on a state-led, non-market approach to the economy and trade and did not embrace open, market-oriented principles.
Faced with these realities, in August 2017, the United States shifted to a more aggressive approach to its engagement of China with the launch of an investigation under Section 301 of the Trade Act of 1974 focused on China’s acts, policies and practices related to forced technology transfer, intellectual property and innovation, all of which involved longstanding and serious problems. The findings made in this investigation led to substantial U.S. tariffs on imports from China as well as to corresponding retaliation by China.
On January 15, 2020, the United States and China signed an economic and trade agreement, known as the “Phase One Agreement.” This Agreement included commitments from China in the areas of intellectual property and technology transfer. It also secured improved market access for the agriculture and financial services sectors, along with China’s commitment to increase its purchases of U.S. goods and services. A copy of the Phase One Agreement can be found here. Fact sheets describing the Phase One Agreement can be found here.
The most recent annual USTR Report to Congress on China’s WTO Compliance can be found here.
Hong Kong is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. It operates as a separate customs territory.
Macau is a Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. It operates as a separate customs territory.
The U.S.-Mongolia TIFA is the key mechanism for bilateral dialogue between the United States and Mongolia through which the two sides seek to address bilateral trade and investment issues and to coordinate on regional and multilateral matters. The two sides signed the TIFA in July 1994. The TIFA created a U.S.-Mongolia Council, which meets regularly. The most recent meeting of the TIFA Council took place in April 2019 in Washington, D.C.
The United States and Mongolia signed an Agreement on Transparency in Matters Related to International Trade and Investment in September 2013. This agreement entered into force in March 2017. The agreement applies to matters relating to international trade and investment and includes joint commitments to provide opportunities for public comment on proposed laws and regulations and to publish final laws and regulations. This publication commitment includes the obligation to publish final laws and regulations in English, which should make it easier for U.S. and other foreign enterprises to do business in, and invest in, Mongolia. The agreement also commits the two parties to ensure that administrative agencies apply fair, impartial and reasonable procedures and that persons affected by the decisions of administrative agencies have a right to appeal those decisions. Additional commitments address the application of disciplines on bribery and corruption. A copy of the agreement can be found here.
The United States and Mongolia signed a Bilateral Investment Treaty in October 1994. The treaty entered into force in January 1997.
The U.S.-Taiwan Trade and Investment Framework Agreement (TIFA) is the key mechanism for bilateral dialogue between the United States and Taiwan through which the two sides seek to address trade and investment issues and to coordinate on regional and multilateral matters. The two sides signed the TIFA in 1994. The TIFA created a U.S.-Taiwan Council, which meets regularly. The most recent meeting of the TIFA Council took place virtually in June 2021.