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U.S.-Australia Free Trade Agreement: Brief Summary of the Agreement

An FTA for America’s Manufacturing Sector: More than 99 percent of U.S. manufactured exports to Australia will become duty-free immediately upon entry into force
of the Agreement. This is the most significant immediate reduction of industrial tariffs ever
achieved in a U.S. FTA, and will provide benefits for America’s manufacturing workers and companies; U.S.
manufacturers estimate that the elimination of tariffs could result in $2 billion per year in increased U.S.
exports of manufactured goods. There will be significant benefits for such key U.S. manufacturing sectors as
autos and auto parts; chemicals, plastics and soda ash; information technology products; electrical
equipment and appliances; non-electrical machinery; fabricated metal products; construction equipment;
paper and wood products; furniture and fixtures; and medical and scientific

New Opportunities for U.S. Farmers: All U.S. agricultural exports to Australia, totaling more than
$400 million, will receive immediate duty-free access. Key agricultural
products that will benefit from immediate tariff elimination include processed foods, soups and bakery
products, fruits and vegetables, dried onions, fruit and vegetable juices, dried plums, potatoes, almonds,
tomatoes, cherries, raisins, olives, fresh grapes, sweet corn, frozen strawberries, and walnuts. Food
inspection procedures that have posed barriers in the past will be
addressed, benefitting sectors such as pork, citrus, apples and stone

Sensitive to Agricultural Concerns: The FTA is sensitive to concerns that have been expressed by Congress and U.S. beef and dairy
farmers, and the agreement uses tariff-rate quotas (TRQ) to respond to
these concerns while increasing trade. Beef: U.S. above-quota duties will
be phased out over an 18-year period, and initial increased imports
from Australia under the TRQ quota will amount to about 0.17% of
annual U.S. beef production, and 1.6% of annual U.S. beef imports. The
quota increases will take effect when U.S. beef exports return to their
2003 (pre-BSE) levels, or three years after effective date of the
agreement, whichever comes first. Safeguards will be available, including a
price-based safeguard after the transition period. Dairy: There will be no change in the
U.S. MFN above-quota tariff on dairy products subject to quotas, and initial increases
in imports from Australia under the TRQ quota will amount to about 0.17% of the value of annual U.S. dairy
production, and about 2% of the value of total U.S. dairy imports.

Access to Services and Investment: Australia will accord substantial market access across its entire services regime, offering access in sectors such as
telecommunications, express delivery, computer and related services, tourism, energy, construction and engineering,
financial services, insurance, audio/visual and entertainment, professional, environmental, education and
training, and other services sectors. In broadcasting and audiovisual services, the FTA contains important
and unprecedented provisions to improve market access for U.S. films and television programs over
a variety of media including cable, satellite, and the Internet. Most U.S. investments would be
exempted from screening by the Australian Foreign Investment Review Board.

Recognizing the Importance of Innovative
The U.S. and Australia
note the importance of ongoing research and development; of recognizing and
appropriately valuing the therapeutic benefit of innovative drugs; and of transparent,
expeditious, and accountable procedures. In implementing these principles, Australia will make a number of
improvements in its Pharmaceuticals Benefits Scheme (PBS) procedures that will enhance transparency
and accountability in the operation of the PBS, including establishment of an independent process to
review determinations of product listings. The FTA establishes a Medicines Working Group to further promote
the agreement’s public health principles through an ongoing dialogue between the United States
and Australia. In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Australia Therapeutic Goods
Administration will work together to make innovative medical products available more

Open and Fair Government Procurement: U.S. suppliers are granted non-discriminatory rights to
bid on contracts from 80 Australian central government entities,
including key ministries and government enterprises. These commitments are particularly significant and
commercially important, because Australia is one of the only developed countries that is not a
party to the WTO Agreement on Government Procurement. Both countries are also committed to extending
coverage of the agreement to sub-central entities, and will be working with their respective states to
refine the extent of that coverage in the next few weeks. Australia will eliminate its central government
industry development programs, under which suppliers have had to provide various types of offsets as a
condition of their contracts.

A Trade Agreement for the Digital Age: U.S. and Australian authors, performers, inventors, and
other producers of creative material will benefit from the higher and
extended standards the FTA requires for protecting intellectual property rights such as copyrights,
patents, trademarks, and trade secrets and enhanced means for enforcing those rights. The agreement calls for
each government to adopt state-of-the- art protection for digital products such as software, music, text,
and videos, and encourages adoption of measures to promote trade through electronic

Strong Protections for Worker Rights and the
Ensures effective
enforcement of labor and environmental laws and establishes labor and environmental
cooperative mechanisms.

Increased Transparency: The
agreement’s dispute settlement mechanisms call for open public hearings, public access to documents, and the opportunity for
third parties to submit views. Transparency in customs operations will aid express delivery
shipments and will require open and public processes for customs rulings and administration.

Two-way annual goods and services trade with Australia is about $28 billion, and the U.S. has a $9 billion trade surplus with Australia. Australia is America’s 9th largest goods export market*.