25th U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade - U.S.-CHINA JOINT FACT SHEET
The following outcomes of the 25th U.S.-China JCCT were achieved:
- The U.S. Department of Commerce and the Chinese Ministry of Commerce held the ninth meeting of the U.S.-China High Technology and Strategic Trade Working Group (HTWG) in Shenzhen, China on October 28, 2014. The two sides reviewed the achievements made by the working group in recent years, held detailed and in-depth discussion of issues of mutual concern, and reached understanding on future efforts to promote and facilitate bilateral civilian high technology and strategic trade. Both sides speak highly of the working group meeting, as well as the China-U.S. Hi-tech Trade Seminar held on October 29, 2014.
- The United States reiterated its commitment to encourage and facilitate exports of commercial high technology items to China for civilian end users and for civilian end uses. Both sides reiterated their commitment to promote bilateral high technology trade cooperation in key civilian areas.
- To further implement the Action Plan, the U.S. side reiterated that it will actively review individual cases for potentially export controlled civilian high-tech items, such as deep water oil/gas exploration equipment which the Chinese side raised in the HTWG meeting, and provide timely feedback upon receipt of necessary and sufficient information. Also to implement the Action Plan and enhance trade confidence, both sides agreed to continue exchanges of information between both government and industry.
- As part of their implementation of the Action Plan, and as set forth and consistent with existing applicable U.S. regulations, the United States agreed to review applications from qualified Chinese companies that meet the requirements for VEU authorization in a timely manner upon receipt of necessary information; and to implement Wassenaar Arrangement and other multilateral export control regime control list revisions resulting in facilitated exports to most countries, including China, if for civilian end users and civilian end uses. The two sides agreed to continue to strengthen cooperation in end-user visits in accordance with the provisions of the End-Use Verification Understanding. The two sides further commit to continue detailed and in-depth discussion of the export control issues of mutual interest within the U.S.-China High Technology and Strategic Trade Working Group.
- The Chinese side presented the U.S. side with several specific item descriptions for possible export licensing to China. The U.S. side has reviewed those items and determined that some cannot now be approved for export to China but, consistent with current U.S. policy, other items are eligible for consideration for a license for civil end users for civil end uses, and if the U.S. does not have diversion concerns.
Medical Devices and Pharmaceutical Access
- China and the United States affirm that significantly reducing the time-to-market for innovative pharmaceutical products and medical devices will benefit patients by allowing them to receive better treatment earlier. The United States and China have reached the following consensus:
- China will accelerate the studying and pushing forward of the reform of the medical device and pharmaceutical regulatory review and approval system, and will make great efforts to eliminate the drug application backlog within 2-3 years. China’s efforts will include adding personnel, funds, streamlining relevant mechanisms, and increasing the speed of review.
- Applicants who use Multi-Regional Clinical Trial data that includes data from China in order to apply for clinical trial waivers, and whose applications comply with the technical review requirements, can receive clinical trial waivers in China, in order to prevent duplicative testing.
- China will implement measures that allow a drug not marketed in foreign countries to conduct clinical trials in China at the same time it is conducting clinical trials in another country. Applicants can submit evidence of marketing approval of a pharmaceutical product in another country (i.e. certificate of pharmaceutical product) when applying for the drug license after completing clinical trials.
- China and the United States agree that for all draft pharmaceutical and medical device rules and regulations where notifications are required under the relevant WTO rules, a comment period will be provided that will be no less than 60 days.
- In accordance with the Regulations on Supervisory Management of Medical Devices, China will, to facilitate practical regulatory needs, further accelerate the expansion and adjustment of clinical trial product exemption catalogues; expand the scope of medical devices that can be exempted from conducting clinical trials in China; reduce the number of medical device clinical trials and improve the efficiency of bringing imported medical devices to the Chinese market.
- China and the United States agree to engage in enhanced dialogue with expert and high-level officials of relevant Chinese and U.S. agencies in 2015 to promote efficient pharmaceutical and medical device regulation and market access.
U.S. Transport Aircraft Bilateral Airworthiness Expansion
- CAAC and FAA continue to cooperate closely, and based on the platform of the CAAC ARJ21 aircraft's airworthiness certification, the FAA will complete the shadow evaluation of CAAC's transport airplane certification capability, review the results, and discuss with the CAAC how to consider expanding the existing China/U.S. Bilateral airworthiness agreement based on the shadow evaluation's results, and strengthen cooperation further in the airworthiness area.
- To implement the consensus reached by the Presidents of both countries at their bilateral meeting in November 2014, where China and the United States reached consensus to intensify science-based agricultural innovation for food security and China and the United States committed to strengthen dialogue to enable increased use of innovative technologies in agriculture, both sides agree to conduct an annual Strategic Agricultural Innovation Dialogue at a Vice-Ministerial level under the leadership of the Agriculture Working Group within the framework of JCCT, including officials from MOA, MOFCOM, USTR, USDA and officials from other relevant authorities of both countries. This dialogue is intended to create a favorable environment where both sides could carry out balanced, mutually beneficial exchange and cooperation on agricultural innovation. Relevant work plans and issues on the agenda will be put forward by the Agriculture Working Group, and this Vice-Ministerial dialogue will hold its first meeting in early 2015.
Chinese Enterprises Participation in US PPP Projects
- Both China and the United States welcome business investment in infrastructure including Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects by domestic and foreign investors. Both China and the United States recognize the potential for their firms to play a positive role in infrastructure development in both countries and commit to explore opportunities for deepening cooperation in this area.
1. In order to build on the recognition of the United States and China in the Sixth Meeting of the U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue that the objective of competition policy is to promote consumer welfare and economic efficiency, rather than promote individual competitors or industries, and that the enforcement of their respective competition laws should be fair, transparent, objective, and non-discriminatory, and China’s commitment that its three Antimonopoly Enforcement Agencies (AMEAs) are to provide to any party under investigation information about the AMEA’s competition concerns with the conduct or transaction, as well as an effective opportunity for the party to present evidence in its defense:
a) China clarifies that in enforcing the AML, all business operators shall be treated equally.
b) Where AML violations are found, China clarifies that it is to impose enforcement measures that address the harm to competition, and not to impose enforcement measures designed to promote individual competitors or industries.
2. China clarifies that its AMEAs will, (1) when undertaking administrative actions, strictly follow statutory limits on their authority, procedures, and requirements as laid out in China’s relevant laws, regulations and rules; and (2) before imposing penalties, notify the parties of the facts, reasons, and basis according to which the administrative penalties are to be decided, notify the parties of the rights that they enjoy in accordance with the law, and provide the parties with the right to state their cases and to defend themselves.
3. China clarifies that all administrative decisions that impose liability on a party under the AML will be provided in writing to the party and include the facts, reasons, and evidence on which the decision is based. China clarifies that it will publish the final version of administrative decisions that impose liability on a party under the AML in a timely manner. Administrative decisions made public in accordance with law should not include contents involving what are legally commercial secrets.
4. China will ensure that, upon request from a party involved, the three AMEAs are to allow Chinese practicing lawyers to attend and participate in meetings with any of the three AMEAs. China will ensure that, upon request from the party involved, and after obtaining approval from the AMEA, which shall be granted as normal practice, the following persons may attend the meetings with any of the three AMEAs: (1) representatives of foreign law firm representative offices established in China, who are permitted to attend and advise on international law and practice and provide information on the impact of the Chinese legal environment, but not permitted to conduct activities that encompass Chinese legal affairs, and (2) foreign legal counsel practicing in other legal jurisdictions, who are permitted to attend and provide information on the subject transaction or conduct and information on the laws or international practices of the legal jurisdiction where they practice.
- Both sides agree through channels such as the US-China Consular Dialogue to continue to exchange views on reciprocal arrangements for various types of visas and further facilitate people-to-people exchanges.
- The United States and China commit to ensure that both countries treat intellectual property rights owned or developed in other countries the same as domestically owned or developed intellectual property rights. Enterprises are free to base technology transfer decisions on business and market considerations, and are free to independently negotiate and decide whether and under what circumstances to assign or license intellectual property rights to affiliated or unaffiliated enterprises. Both China and the United States confirm that the government is entitled to take measures to encourage enterprises to engage in research and development and the creation and protection of intellectual property rights.
Notorious Market/301 Priority Watch List
- The United States confirms its commitment to objectively, fairly, and in good faith take into account information it receives from Chinese and other entities as part of the process of compiling its Special 301 and Notorious Markets reports.
- In the Special 301 and Notorious Markets reports, the United States confirms its commitment to recognize the efforts made and results achieved by foreign governments and entities, including progress made by the Chinese government and Chinese entities with respect to intellectual property protection and enforcement.
- In fulfilling its 2013 JCCT commitment with respect to the Notorious Markets report, the United States took steps to add greater transparency to the Notorious Markets review process.
- The United States is to consider and pursue additional steps as appropriate to enhance the transparency, objectivity, and fairness of these reporting processes.
- China and the United States acknowledge the importance of providing strong intellectual property protections and understand the following:
- That a term, or its translation or transliteration, is not eligible for protection as a GI in its territory where the term is generic in its territory;
- That the relationship between trademarks and GIs is to be handled in accordance with relevant articles in the TRIPS Agreement;
- That the legal means are available for interested third parties on the above grounds to object to and to cancel any registration or recognition granted to a GI;
- Where a component of a compound GI is generic in its territory, the GI protection is not to extend to that generic component. In the event a relevant agency does not have a disclaimer practice, the agency may adopt such practice noting that the compound GI registered or recognized is to be protected only in compound form.
- China and the United States are to hold dialogues on geographical indications.
Chinese Companies' Cargo Airlines Co-terminalization
- In recognition of the importance of air services to the two economies, the United States and China commit to convene a new round of U.S.-China Air Services discussions in the first half of 2015 to discuss a broad range of issues including co-terminalization of all-cargo air carrier flights.
- The United States and China agree to work together to combat illegal, unreported, or unregulated (IUU) fishing, including by developing and sharing improved data on trade in fish and fish products. As a first step, both sides agree to meet in the first half of 2015 to begin sharing information about methodologies on trade statistics for fish and fish products, including greater specificity in the harmonized system, species of interest, and best practices for tracking product.
Lacey Act Amendment
- The United States and China commit to continue their relationship under the framework of the U.S.-China Bilateral Forum on Combating Illegal Logging and Associated Trade. The United States and China will hold the 6th meeting of the Forum in the first half of 2015 to further cooperation under the Forum, including through sharing information on the implementation of the Lacey Act, discussing ways to promote and facilitate legal forest products trade between the United States and China, the research program on wood legality verification options and strategies for China-U.S. trade in forest products, and encouraging the participation of the private sector and civil society in the Forum and in any seminars or workshops related to combating illegal logging and associated trade that China and the United States participate in.
IPR/Treatment of Intellectual Property in Standards Setting
- China and the United States recognize that standards setting can promote innovation, competition and consumer welfare. They also reaffirm that IPR protection and enforcement is critical to promote innovation, including when companies voluntarily agree to incorporate patents protecting technologies into a standard. Both sides recognize that specific concerns may exist relating to the licensing of standard essential patents that are subject to licensing agreements. China and the United States commit to continue engaging in discussion of these issues.
Ease Railway Locomotive Vehicle Import Certification
- The United States has confirmed that the Association of American Railroads is committed to apply the complete built unit (CBU) import market access authentication requirement in a fair and nondiscriminatory manner to domestic and imported products.
- China confirms that it will publish for public comment the draft Interim Administrative Measures for the Government Procurement of Domestic Goods after revising and improving it on the basis of thorough consideration of various opinions, including achieving cost savings, decreasing administrative burdens, and increasing flexibilities.
IPR/Cooperative Framework Agreement
- China and the United States reaffirm their commitment to implement the US-China Intellectual Property Cooperation Framework Agreement (CFA). Both governments attach great importance to this work, and are to provide the support and resources necessary to implement engagements under the CFA over the next few years. MOFCOM, on the Chinese side, in cooperation with other Chinese IP agencies, and USPTO, USTDA, and USTR, on the US side, in cooperation with other U.S. IP agencies, pledge to work closely and cooperatively to ensure each program is successful. Their cooperation to date has been very successful, namely, the Exchange Program on Intellectual Property Legislation, Regulation and Judicial Interpretation in September of 2014 which was principally funded by USTDA and principally organized by USPTO in accordance with the 2013 MOU between USTDA and MOFCOM, and two workshops in China on the Protection of Geographical Indications and on Trademark Cancellation and Opposition Proceedings funded by USPTO with its Chinese partners (SAIC/AQSIQ and SAIC respectively). Both sides commit to further cooperate on CFA technical assistance and exchange engagements, including two study visits to the United States and additional workshops in China supported by USTDA and USPTO, including a forthcoming copyright-related workshop in 2015 co-sponsored by USPTO and NCAC. MOFCOM and USTDA have agreed to reallocate existing USTDA funding for workshops under their 2013 MOU to fund the study visits under the CFA. Upon completion of existing programmatic and budgetary commitments, the parties will evaluate the completed programs, and discuss how they might engage in additional programs under the CFA, and work toward a new or revised USTDA and MOFCOM MOU.
China Legal Services
- China agrees to conduct research and discussion at an appropriate time in 2015 to introduce the status and process of opening the Chinese legal services market, and to invite advice and suggestions from the foreign legal community. In the pilot work of exploring ways and mechanisms for strengthening business cooperation between Chinese and foreign, Hong Kong, and Macau law firms in the Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone, Chinese relevant authorities are in the process of drafting implementation rules. Both sides agree to continue to exchange ideas on this work.
U.S. Market Access on Legal Services
- The United States welcomes foreign investment from China, including with respect to legal services. In the United States, legal services are for the most part regulated at the state level, and as such the Federal government has a limited role in the market for legal services. All licensed providers of legal services compete on the same terms and conditions without regard to nationality. As reflected in the U.S. WTO obligations, U.S. states do not discriminate against law firms based upon the nationality of their ownership, so long as the lawyers employed are authorized to practice in the state in question. Moreover, in granting licenses to individual lawyers, U.S. states do not discriminate against applicants based upon their nationality, and a Chinese lawyer licensed to practice in one U.S. state can obtain authorization to practice in another U.S. state under the same conditions as a U.S. lawyer. Finally, 32 states and the District of Columbia, representing all the major U.S. legal markets, have foreign legal consultancy rules allowing Chinese lawyers to advise their U.S. clients on Chinese law without obtaining a full license in the United States.
Establish Sino-U.S. Service Trade Cooperation and Promotion Working Group
- The United States and China commit to expand cooperation in promotion of trade in the services industry. The Department of Commerce and other interested parties will engage in a collaborative dialogue with the Ministry of Commerce at the Deputy Assistant Secretary/Director General level beginning early next year. As a part of this dialogue, the two sides will develop exchanges designed to promote bilateral trade in the services industry.
Expanding U.S. and China Climate & Clean Energy Cooperation
- To support the achievement of the ambitious climate goals announced by President Obama and President Xi in Beijing in November 2014, Commerce Secretary Penny Pritzker and Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, in collaboration with the Chinese Ministry of Commerce and National Energy Administration, will co-lead a Smart Cities/Smart Growth Business Development Mission to China April 12-17, 2015. It will focus on green infrastructure, energy efficiency, green buildings, carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) and environmental sectors. The mission will highlight the benefits of sustainable urbanization technologies to support China’s air quality and climate goals.
IPR/Sales of IP-Intensive Goods and Services
- The United States and China reaffirm their commitments to foster a better environment to facilitate increased sales of legitimate IP intensive goods and services (“legitimate sales”). The United States and China agree to study and exchange information on how to accomplish this objective. Areas of study and exchange are to include, as appropriate: metrics to show the levels of legitimate sales; information on how to analyze the economic impact of IP in each economy, sharing data on IP-intensive imports and exports if available; information on effective IP enforcement actions as well as relevant IP-related legal and regulatory reforms, and information on civil damages. The status of the discussion is to be reflected in the annual report of the U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade IPR working group.
IPR/Trade Secrets in Government Proceedings
- The United States and China confirm that trade secrets submitted to the government in administrative or regulatory proceedings are to be protected from improper disclosure to the public and only disclosed to government officials in connection with their official duties in accordance with law. Each side will further study how to optimize its respective relevant administrative and regulatory procedures within its legal system, where appropriate, including by strengthening confidentiality protection measures, limiting the scope of government personnel having access to trade secrets, limiting the information required from companies to include only information reasonably necessary for satisfying regulatory purposes, and stipulating that any requirements on government agencies to publicly disclose information appropriately allow for the withholding of trade secrets. Government officials who illegally disclose companies’ trade secrets are to be subject to administrative or legal liability according to law. The United States and China agree to exchange information on the scope of protection of trade secrets and confidential business information under their respective legal systems. China acknowledges that it is to conduct a legislative study of a revised law on trade secrets. The United States acknowledges that draft legislation proposing a Federal civil cause of action for trade secrets misappropriation has been introduced in the U.S. Congress.
IPR/Deepen and Strengthen China-U.S. Criminal Law Enforcement Cooperation on Intellectual Property
- Building on the consensus reached at the 24th JCCT, the United States and China commit to deepen intellectual property criminal law enforcement cooperation under the framework of U.S.-China Joint Liaison Group on Law Enforcement Cooperation, including to increase the number of investigations, strengthen information-sharing and cooperation in cross-border criminal law enforcement, and to conduct joint law enforcement actions for major cases.
Food and Drug Safety Inspections
- To promote bilateral cooperation in food safety, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (U.S. FDA) and China's General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine signed the Implementing Arrangement Between the Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States of America and the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China Regarding the Cooperative Mechanism of Food Safety Regulatory Staff on the placement of food safety regulatory staff in one another’s country. The U.S. FDA and the China Food and Drug Administration also signed the Implementing Arrangement Between the Food and Drug Administration of the Department of Health and Human Services of the United States of America and the China Food and Drug Administration of the People’s Republic of China Regarding the Cooperative Mechanism of Regulatory Staff on the placement of drug safety regulatory staff in one another’s country in November 2014.
U.S.-China Legal Exchange
- The U.S. Department of Commerce and China’s Ministry of Commerce and State Council Legislative Affairs Office agreed to lead the U.S.-China Legal Exchange in January 2015, during which U.S. government representatives are to inform members of the Chinese business, legal, and academic communities in Beijing and Wuhan, China of recent developments in U.S. law on the topics of regulation of air pollution control and legal aspects of conducting international electronic commerce. Both sides agreed to convene the next Legal Exchange in the United States, and to work together promptly to agree on the topics to be covered in the exchange and the cities in the United States where it will take place.
- To further enhance mutual understanding of the two sides’ administrative licensing procedures and their impact on the business community, the United States and China held a productive joint exchange on administrative licensing in Washington, DC in May 2014 that included participation of the business communities of both sides. The United States and China will continue their joint exchange in Spring 2015 by broadening the topic of discussion beyond administrative licensing to other administrative law and administrative procedure issues of concern to our business communities, including the protection of confidential business information in administrative proceedings, and accountability for administrative decisionmaking, with additional topics to be mutually determined.
IPR/Bad Faith Trademark Filings
- Both sides agree to continue to prioritize the issue of bad faith trademark filings, and to strengthen communication and exchange on this issue through existing bilateral and multilateral channels.
IPR/Engagement on Judicial Best Practices
- China and the United States commit to continue to strengthen exchange and cooperation on issues related to judicial organs through the IPR Working Group and other bilateral mechanisms.
IPR/Licensing of Technology
- The U.S. and China both commit to continue to maintain exchanges and dialogue regarding technology import and export license agreement issues.
- China and the U.S. are to strengthen enforcement against unlawful trademark counterfeiting and copyright piracy activities in the online environment and to deter the occurrence of infringement and counterfeiting through criminal, civil and administrative remedies and penalties, according to law. Building on the foundation of the June 18, 2014 Leading Group’s Work Plan for Fighting Infringement in the Online Environment, China will, in a practical and timely fashion, classify products with significant impacts on public health and safety as priorities, and carry-out enhanced enforcement actions. Both China and the U.S. are to continue their effective cooperation in cross-border enforcement efforts against counterfeit and pirated goods, and conduct exchanges on the effectiveness of enforcement efforts.
Statistics Working Group
- The JCCT Statistics Working Group (SWG) in December 2014 signed a document that outlines the working group’s future work on analyzing the U.S.-China trade statistics. It is the first time that the working group’s work plan includes trade in services in addition to goods. The SWG, under the JCCT, is a highly cooperative effort through which the United States and China discuss statistical issues to achieve a better mutual understanding of the official statistics that each country produces. This work fosters a better understanding of the economic ties between the United States and China and helps each country understand the bilateral trade statistics.
IPR/Patent Protection and Bad Faith Litigations
- The U.S. and China remain committed to promoting a robust intellectual property system that will incentivize future innovation and economic growth in both countries. Both parties are to strengthen cooperation to protect innovators from bad faith litigations, including to hold a joint seminar on IP licensing, so as to create positive conditions for innovation.
- The U.S. and China have been maintaining a useful and informative discussion on the supplementation of data, since the 24th JCCT in 2013, and China has made improvements on the practice pursuant to Chinese laws and regulations. Both sides affirm that continued exchanges and engagement on specific cases are beneficial.
- The United States and China commit to protect the legal rights of inventors in respect of their inventions and creations, in accordance with their respective domestic laws and regulations, and in line with their domestic laws, commit to respect the legitimate rules and regulations developed by employers and legitimate contracts between employers and inventors concerning inventor remuneration and awards.
U.S. Secretary of Commerce Penny Pritzker and U.S. Trade Representative Michael Froman, together with Chinese Vice Premier Wang Yang, co-chaired the 25th U.S.-China Joint Commission on Commerce and Trade (JCCT) in Chicago, Illinois, on December 16-18, 2014. They were joined by U.S. Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack, U.S. Ambassador to China Max Baucus, U.S. Trade and Development Agency Director Leocadia Zak, and additional representatives from the U.S. Departments of Commerce, Agriculture, State and Treasury and the Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Other Chinese participants included China’s Ambassador to the United States Cui Tiankai and representatives from the State Council; the National Development and Reform Commission; the Ministries of Agriculture, Commerce, Finance, Foreign Affairs, Industry and Information Technology, and Science and Technology; the China Civil Aviation Administration; the China Food and Drug Administration; the China Insurance Regulatory Commission; the China National Tourism Administration; the General Administration of Customs; the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine; the State Administration for Industry and Commerce; the State Forestry Administration; and the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission.
JCCT Related Events
Incorporating an expanded program developed by Secretary Pritzker, Ambassador Froman, and Vice Premier Wang at last year’s JCCT, the session began with a number of events, jointly sponsored by the U.S. Government and the U.S. and Chinese private sectors. These activities were a critical part of this year's reimagined JCCT, and were widely regarded by the public and private sectors of both countries as an impactful addition to the JCCT that should be integrated in future years.
U.S. - China: A Shared Vision of Global Economic Partnership
Travel and Tourism Cooperative Program
Cooperative Investment Program
Cooperation on Advancing Mutual Goals in Food and Agriculture
Chicago-China Gateway Cities Partnership Luncheon